This section is actively being written. Please check back often for regular new merges, and engage with the information at your own risk.

Bitmap: read

Biggs Theory

The blockchain can be thought of like the Higgs Boson of the digital realm. The blocks, and therefore the transactions, are the immovable object, given mass to by the miners and nodes with the computing power and network incentives needed to uphold this immutable data layer of the internet. By utilizing the fundamental components of Bitcoin as the foundations of a digital world, the permanence of this world is inherited from Bitcoin. This represents a persistent unified field of data. Biggs Theory suggests that this data amounts to digital mass. This is the basis of what has come to be dubbed Digital Matter Theory, which is based on these concepts. Biggs Theory maps out the co-ordinates of this digital mass and provides a basis for unified building. How these data points are interpreted is not the purpose of this theory, but to provide a ground truth, a framework, and examples for interpretation, and the access points to be able to reference blockspace at the most granular level.

The Bitmap Procedure

The core procedure of the Bitmap protocol is utilizing the data generated by Bitcoin as the core foundation of a digital terrain. As Bitmap is based upon Bitcoin's raw data, it mirror's the unique properties of Bitcoin's data, and applies them to digital property upon a unified spatial field. The process is open, decentralized, and equitable, allowing anybody to claim digital real estate directly on layer 1 of Bitcoin by applying Ordinals Theory, and to terraform and build on this real estate by applying Bitmap Theory.
Input. The Bitcoin Blockchain.
Algorithm. Bitcoin data finds its most natural spatial analogue.
Output. Terrain derived from Bitcoin's geological ground truth.
Developers may utilize the Bitmap Theory and Protocol to build experiences, games, metaverses, among countless other examples based upon block data, and utilizing the valid Bitmap inscription claims as the land deed to this plot. Owners of Bitmap land inscriptions can pin inscriptions spatially at a various resolutions, from the district level, down to specific Satoshi co-ordinates within their Bitmap land, effectively building on-chain with the block data. Bitmap takes a layered approach, starting with the Blocks and extrapolating them to Districts, then Transactions to Parcels, and so forth.

Bitcoin Map Graph Theory

Important: the values at the highest resolution of Bitmap have no clear dimensionality. This means, the values at any specific point upon the index are merely a volume which can be represented in two or three dimensions by applying an ordinal index to the point-space.
To take the raw data of Bitcoin and extrapolate spatially into a granular Map of Bitcoin in a non-arbitrary fashion, it starts at the Block level, which is the fundamental component of Blockchain.
From here, you can extrapolate up or down. If you go down, you'll find Transactions, which are made up of Inputs and Outputs between Addresses. If you go up, you'll find Difficulty Adjustments, and Halving events. These elements together represent the skeletal structure of Bitcoin itself, with the smallest level of the map measured in Satoshi's, each position representing a point on the Map Graph.
Whilst the Block and Transaction Graph can be expressed using Euclidian geometry, certain aspects (such as inputs/outputs, and addresses) are more naturally represented by Non-Euclidian geometry (e.g. inputs/outputs can be portals between Blocks, Bitcoin public addresses can act as Warp Zones).
A Map Graph naturally generated from Bitcoins data forms the core representation of Bitmap, and can be utilized as a tool by anybody wishing to build upon Bitmap Theory. The points upon this map graph can be represented by co-ordinates, which form the basis of the inscription ruleset.
This is a proposal for the creation of such a map graph, which can form the ground truth representing the map of Bitcoin, also known as Bitmap. Currently such a map graph is theoretical, and the map is purely made up of the data-points we can access, but to create such a map would be a great service to the further development of Bitmap.

District Theory


This refers to the Bitmap District Address at block-height 404 of Bitcoin. The first valid inscription of this address, as-per ruleset, is the valid key-bearer at the District layer.
Bitcoin Blocks are represented in Bitmap Theory by Districts. The owners of Districts are recognized as a sort of Admin of the block geo-space by the consensus of those adhering to District standard. Metadata can be pinned to Districts, allowing for on-chain building on the District layer.
When the values of a Bitcoin Block are extrapolated into the spatial realm, we are presented with a map graph of the Block. This Block is made up of Transactions, which Bitmap Theory reads as Parcels. When a Bitmap District is inscribed, the Parcels are considered to be part of the District by default.
That means, until a Parcel is inscribed, it is part of the District and if the District is transferred, the Parcels within it move with it. If the Parcels are inscribed in their own right, they do not move with the District. This forms a parent-child relationship between Districts and Parcels.

Parcel Theory


This refers to the Bitmap Parcel Address at transaction 0 at block-height 404 of Bitcoin. Only District owners are able to inscribe Parcels from the transactions within the Block.
The Bitcoin Transactions within the Block are represented in Bitmap Theory as Parcels within the Districts. By default, Parcels are part of the District and do not need to be inscribed separately. Doing so detaches and renders them individual. Parcels must be inscribed to Pin Metadata to it.
Currently, Parcel inscriptions are not a widely proliferated feature, which can cause problems when sellers of Districts have inscribed Parcels. We urge all Marketplaces to adopt the Parcels standard in their visualizations, so buyers are aware of the Parcelization of the land they are buying.

Chunk Theory


This refers to the Bitmap Chunk at output 1 of transaction 0 at block-height 404 of Bitcoin. Outputs can be read and referred to with this co-ordinates schema. Satoshi Chunks are Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXO's) and cannot be terraformed. Bitoshi Chunks represent spent transaction Outputs and can be terraformed.
Introducing the new Chunk standard. Chunks derive from the transaction Output's of each Block. These are the smaller pieces of land-mass measured in Satoshi's, and amounting to the larger Parcel. They can be used for higher-resolution co-ordinate referencing. Chunks can exist in one of two states:
1. Satoshi Chunk: An Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)
2. Bitoshi Chunk: A Spent Transaction Output
Satoshi Chunks are areas of land that cannot be removed or edited until the root UTXO is spent by the actual owner of the UTXO. When the root UTXO is spent in a subsequent block, the chunk derived from this output becomes a Bitoshi Chunk. This occupies the exact real estate as the Satoshi Chunk did, but now since the Satoshi's that gave birth to this space has been spent, the Chunk itself can be terraformed by the Parcel owner.

Caves Theory


This refers to the Bitmap Cave at input 1 of transaction 0 at block-height 404 of Bitcoin. Inputs can be read and referred to with this co-ordinates schema.
Introducing the new Caves standard. A Cave refers to the inputs of the transaction. It can be thought of as the underground caves of the land. Like a Chunk, it is measured in Satoshi's, but unlike the Chunks it represents the space between land rather than the land itself.

Blanck Theory


This refers to the co-ordinates measured in satoshi value, known as a Blanck spaces. This co-ordinate example refers to the 21st satoshi upon output 1 of transaction 0 of block 404. As the smallest unit possible, these co-ordinates allow for granular referencing.
Introducing the new Blanck standard. A Blanck refers to the smallest unit of Biggs space. A Blanck is a point upon any input or output along the grid of indexed satoshis. A Blanck space inherits the properties of the Chunk or Cave from which it is derived. Blancks in Caves represent the points of empty space in the cave. Blancks in Chunks represent the points of land that make up the map, and can be in one of two states:
  1. 1.
    Satoshi Space: An unspent Satoshi.
  2. 2.
    Bitoshi Space: A spent Satoshi.

Portal Theory

Introducing the new Portal standard. Each input is connected to an output from a previous block. This creates a portal between the input & output. This means, all inputs and spent outputs have portals that lead to other block districts. This portal theory can be applied to Chunks and Caves upon the spatial plane, similar to how Pacman goes out one side of the maze and comes in the other.

The Warp Zone Theory

A warp zone is a Bitcoin address, and the inputs and outputs of the transactions that occur within this address are tied to the portals upon the blocks where the transactions happened.

Neighbourhood Theory

Theory. A Bitmap neighbourhood is a group of 2016 districts. This follows the difficulty adjustment of Bitcoin. Since indexing of Districts starts at zero, the first neighbourhood ranges 0-2015, and the second Neighbourhood 2016-4031, and so on. Signals from the Parcel and District level can be rolled up to the Neighbourhood level.

Section Theory

Theory. A Bitmap Section is a group of 210000 Districts. This follows the coinbase reward halving periods. Since indexing of Districts starts at zero, the #first tribe ranges 0-209999, and the next tribe 210000-419999, and so on. At the time of writing there are FOUR sections. Roughly every FOUR years a new SECTION begins. This ensures the continuous predictable expansion of the Bitmap universe.

Blockstep Theory

Each block that is mined on Bitcoin is a step in Bitcoin time. The actual time between each block is not consistent due to the nature of block mining, so time dilation, the time between blocks, is measured.

Entities Theory

Each inscription can be considered an entity. Entities have inherent properties based upon the Ordinal and Inscription data. These can be codified by custom rulesets, and entities can be commanded across the map by using Command Theory. This theory enables the building of games that utilize the entities as pieces that can traverse the map.

Bitmap: write

Claim Theory

All Bitmaps start their life as Bitcoin Blocks. Claiming is the act of transmuting a Bitcoin Block into a Bitmap District. This is called a District Claim can only be done once per block. This ensures that there may only ever be one owner of a District at any point in time. These Districts can be fractionalized down to their natural components. The next layer down from Districts is the Parcels. The layer underneath Parcels is Chunks and Caves. These fundamental substrates of Bitmap make up the hierarchical denominations of Bitmap available.

District Claim Theory

To claim a bitmap starts at the District level. At this point in time, all Districts are claimed up to the latest Bitcoin Block, and a new District becomes available every time a new Bitcoin Block is mined. To claim a District means to be the first person to inscribe an ordinal with the claim schema as per Ruleset. As all Districts were inscribed within the first month in an event that has come to be known as the Blockout, since this point in time there has been competition for each District that becomes available, and advanced techniques are becoming increasingly utilized which increases the difficulty to obtain new Districts. This is why it is important Districts can be fractionalized, and the smaller pieces of Bitmap can be distributed, allowing Bitcoin's block space and scale set the bounds for Bitmap.

Parcel Claim Theory

Parcels are part and parcel of the District by default from the moment the District is inscribed. Inscribing a Parcel can only be done by the valid District owner from which the Parcel derives, and doing so relinquishes control of this part of the map to the owner of the Parcel rather than the District.

Bitoshi Chunk Theory

Bitoshi Chunk Theory is in the process of being formalized and tested fully. It is not indexed or supported currently. Please engage with Bitoshi Chunk Theory with this in mind.
Chunks are the smaller parts of a Parcel. They are derived from the spent outputs. Inscribing a Chunk can only be done by the valid Parcel owner from which the Chunk derives. Doing so relinquishes control of this part of the map to the owner of the Chunk rather than the Parcel. Chunks have a balance of Bitoshi's equal to the amount of Satoshi's in the Output. This balance can be extracted through a process of Chunk Harvesting which is explained below.

Build Theory

Build Theory is in the process of being formalized and tested fully. It is not indexed or supported currently. Please engage with Build Theory with this in mind.
There are multiple potential methods to build on any layer of Bitmap. This section explores the tools at our disposal to make building on-chain with Bitmap possible, and how these may be implemented.

Parent & Child Attachment Theory

By using your Bitmap District, Parcel, or Chunk as the parent, you can create a child inscription that is intrinsically attached to the parent Bitmap land. This is a permanent link with full family tree provenance. This method was made available through ord. It can be used to add Metadata to the land, or to create a sovereign collection or fungible token from the Bitmap. You can do this at any level.

Pinning Theory

This theory is currently being developed, so only a high-level conceptual view is provided here. More info will emerge on this as we test and progress further through this Whitepaper. It involves bundling inscriptions together as inputs/outputs of the same transaction, with an added inscription with the metadata solidifying the pinning, or grouping of the inscriptions.
Linking means to point to a Bitmap co-ordinate. There are two kinds of on-chain linking: interlinking, and outerlinking. Both require the exact same schema. The only difference is whether the referenced bitmap is in the same wallet or not. Interlinking means it is, and outerlinking means it isn't. To link to anywhere on bitmap, you can utilize the co-ordinates specified in the Bitmap: read section.

Terraform Theory

Terraforming Theory is in the process of being formalized and tested fully. It is not indexed or supported currently. Please engage with Terraforming Theory with this in mind.
Utilizing your Bitoshi balance harvested from chunks to add mass to other chunks. This system creates a closed-loop of terrain modification, meaning energy cannot enter or leave this system, only moved. Unlike Build Theory, which adds data onto the Bitmap layers, Terraform Theory relates to the modification of the terrain itself.

Chunk Harvesting

A theoretical concept for extracting the Bitoshi value from Chunks. The exact method is being finalized, but may involve a time-based blockstep mechanic to enable this extraction process. Once Chunk harvesting has been initiated, it reduces the Bitoshi balance of the chunk and increases the Bitoshi balance of the address which is harvesting the Chunk at a consistent rate. The proposed rate of extraction per-block is based upon the time (in Unix Time) elapsed since the previous block.

Bitoshi Balance

Your Bitoshi balance is a non-transferrable off-chain representation of your capacity to terraform. You may only acquire Bitoshi's from harvesting Chunks. This means, terraforming is only possible by addresses that harvest Chunks.

Signal Theory

Signal Theory is in the process of being formalized and tested fully. It is not indexed or supported currently. Please engage with Signal Theory with this in mind.
This theory deals with the upper levels of Bitmap, the Neighbourhoods, Sections and entire Bitmap. Individual decision-making at this level is not possible since nobody can own these upper levels, however collective decision-making can be achieved through Signals. A Signal is like a statement made by a District, Parcel, or Chunk that is broadcast to the wider network.
For example, a Section may form its identity from the collective signals voting on a name, flag etc. Another example is a colour signal, which is a simple way to allow any area of land to be set to a specific colour, and this may be used in conjunction with other signals for various purposes.
This enables consensus to be found across multiple levels, and has potential to be utilized for governance or for users to send collective signals which are rolled up to the higher levels.

Command Theory

Command Theory is in the process of being formalized and tested fully. It is not indexed or supported currently. Please engage with Command Theory with this in mind.
Commands apply action steps to Entities in relation to Bitmap. Custom rulesets can be created to house these commands. Rulesets can be applied to commands to reach a result. Blockstep can be utilized as a turn-based mechanic. This will enable different game-boards and command systems to operate independently and in parallel upon Bitmap. Full specifications for commands is being explored. We encourage independent exploration of this concept.
This is the end of the Theory section. Come back often for updates as it is being written!


To celebrate the calm and orderly rollout of Bitmap Theory, the living whitepaper, we fused some things together and gave birth to an actual living whitepaper! Made using the brc420 standard. Now you can finally live your dreams and step into the body of white paper.


Created by @6elatin and @Blockamoto.